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What Is CNC? – Definition, Types, And More

Today, I will talk to you about What is CNC? What is it for ?, the Advantages, and How to Prepare for its use?; The process of industrialization and mechanization, together with the best of each one of them, is what today brings us the best machines.

I invite you to enjoy this content and consider reading it until the end of the Post.

Have you heard the Word CNC before? Although this article is for people who are attending the term for the first time, it is also for people who have already heard it but want to expand the information even more.

Let’s go to the Grain!

What is the CNC? and What do its acronyms mean?

The CNC is an automated machine system that works with programmed commands or functions whose instructions are saved on a storage disk. In simple terms, it is a computer-controlled carving machine.

It reads the G-code that instructs the machine how to move, what feed rate and spindle speed to use, which cutting tool should be on the spindle, and more.

The acronyms CNC What do they mean?

CNC means Computerized Numerical Control, and it works with a program adapted as a language to the machine, which is known as Program or CAM Software.

What other function is critical to highlight about the CNC

The Cutter

All the parts are essential, but something important when talking about the CNC is “The cutter” that the machine has on the spindle, and it will carve the material (usually metal) and create the desired shape.

Material that has been removed is called a “chip” and will typically be recycled.

Program and its Operator

In most cases, a CNC machine is programmed by a specialized professional as a programmer,  using CAM software to apply the toolpaths to a 3D or 2D model of the part they want to make.

Once the programmer has finished his programming work, the program is fed into a post-processor that will convert the CAM program into G code that the machine can read.

The G code is loaded onto a CNC machine and all the necessary cutting tools, raw material, and work support required to hold the raw material. Then a machinist will put the machine in automatic mode and start the program to make the part.

What is the CNC Operating Principle?

The system directs the servo drives commands to drive the servo motor and other output devices such as relays, solenoid. To initiate operations such as start and stop, coolant and shutdown, tool change, paddle change

The most basic CNC operating principles are :

  1. The X, Y, and Z axis movement is controlled by a motor that supplies alternating current or direct current.
  2. The movement of the machine is carried out by giving commands.
  3. All operations are carried out using codes such as speed, feed, depth of cut.
  4. A separate code is available for each operation.
  5. A warning system is available to protect various operations and components.

Types of CNC Machines

CNC machines are not an invention of the 90s or the 2000s, and the first began to be designed, built, and worked in the middle of the year 1950, manufactured by the Engineer John T. Parsons.

Today, these fabulous creations are more and more robust, specialized, and more required in the world of work; All this due to their multitasking, precision, and work time.

This leads me to show you some of the CNC machines that are currently known:

Firstly, lathe machines.
Secondly, routers or milling machines.
CNC fiber laser cutter.
Grinding units.
Welding machines.
Lastly, winding machines, among others.

Market Demand for CNC Machines

The demand for lathe machines can be attributed to a wide application area. On the other hand, milling machines are expected to register a strong growth rate during the forecast period.

Routers are compatible with a wide range of materials and surfaces and help improve overall efficiency. Additionally, technological innovation has led to the development of advanced milling machines that can provide a more consistent finish to products.

The global market for computer numerical controls is projected to grow from a value of US $ 52.6 billion in 2020 to the US $ 93.4 billion by 2024. If these values ​​are actual, the CNC market is expected to register a CAGR. of 6.3% during the forecast period.

What will you need to prepare for the use of the CNC machine

As we saw before, the market for producing this type of machine, the CNC, depending on its function, will increase its demand, both for those who sell them and for those who use them, it will be something very profitable.

What I always recommend is that you prepare and instruct yourself in the use of this type of production machinery; you can start with private spaces that offer training or teaching in this area of ​​production; the other thing you will need is to have mastery from a computer and design programs if you have to make the designs or drawings that are going to be machined on the surface of the wood.

  • Basic knowledge of plane or 2D geometry and 3D.
  • Knowledge of Vectorization and Mastery of the Inkscape Program to convert to G code is what the machine understands. (Optional)
  • Creativity.
  • Patience.

6 Advantages of working with CNC Machines in Woodworking

No machine equals man’s creativity and design capacity when working with wood; But, since the wood began to be machined with CNC Machines, the Level of Quality and Design has been much equal to that of a true Master Cabinetmaker.

1.- Firstly, excellent for serial work.

2.- Secondly, final finish of excellent quality.

3.- It is not polluting.

4.- Ideal for working with different designs.

5.- Almost independent machining requires little supervision.

6.- You can create products with beautiful 2D and 3D designs.


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