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What Is Migration? – Definition, Types, And More

Migration understood as the displacement of people from one region to another, trying to find better living conditions.

Internal migration occurs when the movement of people happens within the same country and external when there an international movement from one country to another.

Human migrations have been present throughout human history. When any environmental, demographic, cultural, religious, socio-political, or economic problem arose, people were forced to move from one place to another.

Why do people migrate?

To understand why people migrate, let us remember that the most basic concept of man’s economic problem to solve his unlimited needs with the resources he possesses.

It helps us understand that when people see the risk of not meeting their needs, they move from one place to another.

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1. Environmental reasons

  • Adverse environmental conditions: People migrate because the place where the environmental conditions are located are very harmful. If they live in a home affected by ongoing natural catastrophes, they move to look for a safe place.
  • Lack of natural resources: If their natural environment is depredated and they do not get adequate means of subsistence, they move to another place with a better supply of resources.

2. Social reasons

  • Political and ideological persecution: If people suffer political or ideological persecution, they still change their residence, looking for a place where there is more tolerance and respect for their fundamental rights.
  • Therefore: In the case of war conflicts of any kind, where people are continually facing risk to their personal and family life, they are also forced to move.
  • Organized crime: It can also consider a fundamental element that motivates people to move to seek a situation of greater security.

3. Religious reasons

  • Religious intolerance: It can be another reason that forces human beings to move from one place to another, due to the fear that it causes them and the danger it represents for them and their families.

4. Economic reasons

  • Lack of job opportunities: When people in their country of origin do not find adequate conditions to obtain a suitable job and a good source of income to cover their personal and family needs, it causes them to move in search of better opportunities in the labor market.
  • Economic underdevelopment: People usually move from underdeveloped to developed places because they aspire to find better economic and living conditions in general for themselves and their families.

Types of migrations

There are different types of migrations. The most common are:

1. Individual migration

It occurs when there are movements of a person or a person and their family; usually, it originates when seeking better study or work opportunities.

They are planned movements and are regularly self-financed or sponsored by a company, institutional body, or government.

2. Mass migration

They are displacements of large numbers of people, which generally occur as disorderly processes and without any organization.

For that reason, they are movements that generate much greater risk for everyone involved.

3. Internal migration

Internal migration usually occurs from rural to urban areas; Because the infrastructure of the metropolitan area is better developed than in the rural area, and people seek to improve their social and economic situation.

They are the movement within the same country. The transfer can be permanent or temporary, according to the needs and expectations of the people.

4. External migration

It is better known as international migration because population movements are generated from one country to another.

It is international because this migration implies that people cross the border of another country; currently, this a very marked phenomenon in many countries.

5. Regular migration

They are migrations that meet legal requirements, follow established processes and occur in an orderly and planned manner.

6. Irregular migration

People who move do not follow or comply with the legally established rules to move from one country to another. These displaced people do not have legal documents to support their stay in their destination country.

What can we say about migration?

Whatever the case as the migration occurs, we must consider that people who move from one place to another will have to face very different situations from those they  used to in their country also the origin.

Sometimes they have to speak a different language, adapt to a distinct cultural identity and a set of different customs and traditions.

Therefore, it always presented as a risk and a complex and challenging situation for migrants.

To finish, we consider that both internal and external migrations are becoming general; However, the ones that are being riskier are international migrations due to the massive and irregular way they occur.

The expectations of finding a better future or adverse political, economic, social, and cultural conditions force people to take significant risks when deciding to initiate massive and irregular migration processes.

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